I encountered quite a few problems that were related to some of everything in this thread.
Here’s what I did to resolve my issue:
Started with a fresh machine.
Booted to FOG PXE and went to Debug Mode.
DD’d the drive for a minute to destroy any partition data.
Created a fresh image from install.
Uploaded image as Single Partition (NTFS Only, Resizable)
After deploying images using this method, I was able to deploy several images without any problems.