Done testing and I can confirm that AOMEI Backupper causes the problem.
I re-captured the image using dism, injected the install.wim into the install media, installed from it (essentially allowing Windows installer to re-create the EFI and MS reserved partitions) and now the restore works perfectly.
This error still appears:
But it has no negative impact on capture or restore.
So, the bottom line is that, from now on, I won’t capture any drives that were restored with AOMEI.
AOMEI is a very good free tool, I’ll still use it but only for images that go to the final user, not images that are captured for deployment.